Metal and ceramic sintering

(3D additive)

furnaces and ovens 

Sintering is a crucial process in the manufacturing of metal and ceramic components, where powdered materials are compacted and heated to form solid, dense parts. Furnaces used for sintering must provide precise vacuum and modified atmosphere to avoid oxygen during the process and temperature control and a suitable environment to ensure high-quality results.

Sintering of metals and ceramics

PR-V (Vacuum Furnaces)

Retort furnaces to work under vacuum and modified atmosphere up to 1150ºC for sintering applications

HCV CCH Series

Retort furnaces up to 1150ºC under modified atmosphere 

PR CCH Series

Retort furnaces up to 1150ºC under modified atmosphere 

HOB Series

Bottom loading furnaces up to 1900ºC

MF Series

Muffle furnace up to 1400ºC, vertical lift door, 4 heated sides

CRN Series

Muffle furnace up to 1900ºC, pantograph side door (SiC and MoSi2) Large series 

XG Series

Muffle furnace up to 1900ºC, vertical lift door (MoSi2 heating elements)

JM Series

Muffle furnace up to 1600ºC, vertical lift door, kanthal SiC

CRN Lateral

Muffle furnace up to 1900ºC, side door

EHT and HS Series

Laboratory ovens up to 300ºC and 500ºC

Process control and Documentation

Hobersal offers a wide range of controllers for every type of application and process needs.

Vacuum Furnace for Titanium Sintering in 3D Additive Manufacturing

Hobersal PR-V vacuum furnaces are used for sintering titanium in 3D additive manufacturing (AM) plays a critical role in ensuring the mechanical properties and quality of the final product. Titanium is widely used in aerospace, medical, and automotive industries due to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Here’s a detailed description of the process:

Key Components of a Vacuum Furnace

  1. Vacuum Chamber:
    • A sealed chamber capable of achieving and maintaining a high vacuum, typically in the range of 10^-2, 10^-5 to 10^-7 mbar.
  2. Heating Elements:
    • Usually made from materials like Kanthal APM, Kanthal SiC or Kanthal Super 1800 and 1900  can withstand high temperatures and vacuum conditions.
  3. Temperature Control System:
    • Precise control of the temperature ramp-up, hold, and cool-down phases to ensure uniform sintering and avoid thermal stresses.
  4. Vacuum Pumps:
    • A combination of roughing pumps and high-vacuum pumps (e.g., turbo-molecular or diffusion pumps) to achieve and maintain the necessary vacuum levels.
  5. Cooling System:
    • Often uses water or inert gas cooling to manage the temperature of the furnace and rapidly cool the parts after sintering.
  6. Gas Inlet System:
    • Allows the introduction of inert or reducing gases (like argon or hydrogen) to control the furnace atmosphere and prevent oxidation.

Sintering Process in a Vacuum Furnace

  1. Preparation of 3D Printed Parts:
    • Printing: Titanium parts are printed using 3D additive manufacturing techniques like Selective Laser Melting (SLM) or Electron Beam Melting (EBM).
    • Removal from Build Plate: The printed parts are carefully removed from the build plate, often requiring machining.
  2. Loading into the Furnace:
    • Cleaning: The parts are cleaned to remove any residual powder or contaminants.
    • Placement: The parts are placed on ceramic or metal trays inside the vacuum furnace. Proper spacing is ensured to allow uniform heating.
  3. Vacuum Pumping:
    • The furnace chamber is sealed, and the vacuum pumps are activated to remove air and gases, achieving a high vacuum.
  4. Heating Cycle:
    • Ramp-Up: The temperature is gradually increased at a controlled rate to prevent thermal shock and ensure uniform heating.
    • Hold/Soak Phase: Once the sintering temperature is reached (typically between 1200°C and 1400°C for titanium), it is held for a specified period to allow atomic diffusion and bonding of the titanium particles.
    • Cooling Phase: After the hold phase, the furnace is gradually cooled. Controlled cooling is critical to avoid the formation of unwanted microstructures and thermal stresses.
  5. Atmosphere Control:
    • During the heating and sintering phases, inert gases (like argon) or reducing gases (like hydrogen) may be introduced to prevent oxidation and contamination of the titanium parts.
  6. Unloading:
    • Once cooled, the sintered parts are removed from the furnace. The final products typically have enhanced mechanical properties and a high degree of density and uniformity.

Advantages of Vacuum Sintering for Titanium in 3D AM

  • Oxidation Prevention: The vacuum environment prevents oxidation, which is crucial for maintaining the purity and mechanical properties of titanium.
  • Uniform Sintering: The controlled atmosphere and temperature ensure uniform sintering, resulting in consistent mechanical properties throughout the part.
  • Enhanced Mechanical Properties: Vacuum sintering can improve the density, strength, and fatigue resistance of the titanium parts, making them suitable for high-performance applications.
  • Reduced Contamination: The high vacuum environment minimizes the risk of contamination from atmospheric gases and impurities.


  • Aerospace: Structural components, engine parts, and fasteners.
  • Medical: Implants, prosthetics, and surgical instruments.
  • Automotive: High-performance engine components, exhaust systems, and structural parts.


Hobersal Vacuum sintering furnaces (PR-V) are essential in the 3D additive manufacturing of titanium parts, ensuring high-quality, high-performance components. The precise control of temperature and atmosphere in a vacuum furnace allows for the production of parts with superior mechanical properties, making this process indispensable for critical applications in various advanced industries.